Παρασκευή, 28 Σεπτεμβρίου 2018

We're Starting To Learn Some Incredible Things About Hypnosis


About 15% of the population is way more hypnotisable than everybody else.

There is increasing scientific evidence to say that hypnosis is an important psychological tool with some exciting applications, from curing anxiety to reducing pain, and potentially fighting addiction.

So why do we still tend to think of hypnosis as a sideshow performance?
And what's the science behind it?
Earlier this year a study was published in the Journal of Experimental Psychology (published under the American Psychological Association) that found hypnosis can have profound effects on executive function – the cognitive processes that regulate our goals as well as the thought processes and actions oriented towards achieving those goals.
The research, from the Australian Research Council's Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders (CCD), aimed to disrupt executive control in participants in a task where participants are instructed to randomly respond "yes" or "no" to trivia questions that pop up on a screen.
The trivia questions ranged from easy ("Are there 12 months in a year?") to very difficult ("Are there 7,107 islands in the Philippines?").
This is known as the Clever Hands test and it has been used in previous experiments that have shown that people are unable to switch off their unconscious motivation for answering the trivia questions correctly.
Truly answering the questions at random would logically give an accuracy rate of around 50% for "yes" or "no" questions but that is not seen in the results of these trials.
Dr Vince Polito, a co-author of the study from CCD, told BuzzFeed News that people are unable to switch off their automatic response mechanism even when motivated by money or placed under time constraints.
"People always, even with those manipulations, think that they're responding randomly but they're not, they're very correct."
However, in the CCD study, 60 participants were given a hypnotic induction (including deep breathing, relaxing and attention focusing) and were then instructed with the following:
"When you respond to these questions I would like you to answer completely randomly. That's right, I want you to answer randomly.
You will not generate a predictable pattern of yes/no or yes/yes/yes, but instead will generated a random sequence.
You will find it easy and natural to just respond randomly to each question. You will find it easy to answer randomly."
The researchers found that hypnotising participants successfully inhibited their automatic tendency to correctly answer the easy questions.

Polito notes that this could have some wide clinical applications, where automatic responses need to be suppressed.

This successful response to the Clever Hands test highlights a potential for hypnosis in "treating addictions or compulsive behaviours, where people don't feel like they're able to inhibit very ingrained responses", said Polito.

This sort of inhibition of low-level automatic brain responses has also been shown previously in experiments where the Stroop response has been derailed by hypnosis.
The Stroop response is named after the American psychologist John Ridley Stroop who observed the effect in a 1935 experiment. In this famous cognitive psychology test participants are shown the names of colours on a screen, written in colours that do not correspond to the colour named.
The participants are then asked to name the colour of the letters, ignoring the word written. This is a frustratingly difficult task because the brain's automatic, low-level response is to read the word.
One 2002 study demonstrated that by hypnotising participants and suggesting that the language that appears on a screen is foreign and they are unable to understand it, the Stroop effect is overcome and participants will correctly name the font colour.
However, while Polito states that there is a general consensus in the hypnosis field that this experiment gave true results, there are some controversies attached to the Stroop effect study, with some failures to replicate its results.

Can everyone be hypnotised?

The ability to be hypnotised (hypnotisability) varies across the population.
Approximately 10-15% of people are known as "high hypnotisable" and they will experience alterations in perception, cognition, memory and action while under hypnosis. Another 10-15% are "low hypnotisable" and these are people who experience almost nothing in response to suggestion.
The rest of the population exists somewhere in the middle.
Polito says there is a very normal distribution for hypnotisability in the population, and that hypnotisability is not statistically related to intelligence or any other traits.

"Hypnotisability doesn't relate to general suggestibility, it's not that these people are gullible or willing to do whatever they're told in any context, it's not related to intelligence or creativity or any kind of other personality traits that have been identified," said Polito.




The investigation of the effects of hypnosis on the brain has found that there are observable structural differences between high hypnotisable and low hypnotisable people.
Another study published this year from CCD, headed by emeritus professor Max Coltheart, used Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) to disrupt activity in a part of the brain and found that it increased hypnotisability.
TMS is a non-invasive targeting of neurons with an electromagnetic coil placed on the outside of the head.
The researchers found that disrupting activity in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – an area that has been implicated in belief formation and evidence evaluation in disorders involving delusions – increased hypnotisability.
Polito, who was also a co-author on the TMS study, said that this neurological manipulation implies that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex area is key in determining people's hypnotic responsiveness.
He also said that neural pathways appear to change significantly for high hypnotisable study participants.
"There's quite a few studies that show suggestion for phenomena that are similar to clinical symptoms and when highs [high hypnotisable] act out those suggestions, what's happening at the neural level is actually quite similar to what's happening in the genuine patient," said Polito.
"So that's quite compelling evidence that what hypnosis is doing, it's not just changing someone's willingness to do what they're told – which is a common suspicion – but that it's actually changing the cognitive and neural levels."
One 2003 study found striking evidence of these neurological changes among 12 participants.
First, the participants were simply asked to feign paralysis in their left legs and their brain activity was monitored in a PET scan. They were then hypnotised and it was suggested to them that their left leg was paralysed before another PET scan.
Scans of these participants revealed neurological changes when the participants were hypnotised that mimicked the disruptions seen in actual paralysis, compared to when they were just faking it.

Can these effects of hypnosis be used for evil?

There is evidence that hypnosis cannot be used to manipulate people to act in the way television depictions would have us believe.
A great deal of research was undertaken throughout the 20th century investigating how hypnosis can engage people in unethical or dangerous behaviours they would not typically engage in.
In one famous 1939 study participants were asked to undertake a number of dangerous activities such as reaching to handle venomous snakes or throwing jugs of what they believed to be acid at experimenters' faces.
The author concluded that hypnotism could be used to induce dangerous, criminal or illegal behaviour.
However, a replication of this study in 1965 found that while the hypnotised participants did, in fact, submit to the requests of the researchers, so did the participants who weren't hypnotised.
When asked why they would do such a thing, the participants who weren't hypnotised simply answered that they recognised they were in a laboratory setting and the researchers wouldn't ask them to do anything they knew was actually dangerous.
"It's hard to be really conclusive from that, but the way that's interpreted is that people under hypnosis aren't going to do anything particularly more dangerous or that they wouldn't do outside of hypnosis," said Polito.


How else can we apply hypnosis?

Hypnosis has a number of clinical applications for treating psychological disorders.
For example, it has been shown to be an effective treatment for anxiety and stress-related disorders. This has been demonstrated within medical settings when patients experience anxiety related to treatment, surgery and medical or dental procedures.
There is also evidence that hypnosis can help to alleviate anxiety related to test and performance, which has been applied in the field of professional sport.
Hypnosis has also been shown to be effective in reducing depressive symptoms, as well as in teaching patients strategies to prevent recurrences of depressive episodes.

Hypnosis also has profound effects in pain management.

In May a study conducted by international researchers investigating the effects of hypnosis on chronic back pain, was published in the Journal of Pain.
The research randomly assigned 100 participants to receive either pain education training or pain education training combined with hypnosis.
Pain education training, also known as Explain Pain, is a successful new method of addressing chronic pain that involves education about chronic pain, including its biological basis, and realistic management strategies for patients.
Sessions of Explain Pain typically last 90 minutes.
The participants in the hypnosis group received a hypnosis session every week for six weeks on top of these education sessions.
A combination of Explain Pain and hypnosis was shown to have extremely positive results for patients for up to three months after the trial.
Associate professor James McAuley from Neuroscience Research Australia (NeuRA) and one of the study's co-authors, told BuzzFeed News that these results trumped everything he has seen in traditional pain management tactics, such as physiotherapy or chiropractic treatment.

"I've spent the last 20 years of my career investigating all of the treatments people might have for back pain ... we've investigated those in clinical trials and we found them to be almost non-effective... they can reduce your back pain by about one point on a 10-point scale," said McAuley.

"The trial was successful, in general you can improve people with back pain by just educating them about pain ... if you add hypnosis on top of that, you can reduce the pain even more. And we're talking now about a 60% reduction in pain intensity, which is about double what you get from taking an opioid."

McAuley notes that there is still very little understanding on a neurological level why this might be happening but he theorises that hypnosis is helping people with chronic pain by upping the emotional regulation in their brains.
"Some of the stuff that we have found out [in people with chronic pain] is that there are disrupted pathways between the prefrontal cortex, that's the front of your brain that you use for thinking and regulating emotions, and that seems to be disrupted in people with pain.
"I think what we're able to do with clinical hypnosis is to change those pathways, we can sharpen them up and make it easier for people to relearn how to control their emotional responses to pain, which are out of control for most people who have chronic pain."
While the effects of hypnosis on pain have been studied in a laboratory setting for decades, McAuley says that there is limited evidence to show pain-reduction effects in large, randomised, controlled trials.
These laboratory studies have also been mostly conducted on participants who have pain induced in the laboratory, rather than people who already suffer from pain and this can give mixed results.
"[The studies] provide the groundwork for what we do with real patients, but often they don't translate very well because if you give me pain in the laboratory, my reactions to that are completely different to somebody who's had chronic pain for five or 10," said McAuley.
McAuley is conducting trials at the University of New South Wales to determine the neurological pathways being altered by hypnosis in this chronic pain treatment.

Why is hypnosis still not taken seriously by a lot of people?

Polito believes that there are two main reasons that hypnosis is still not a widely understood or respected practice: popular culture depictions and its lack of industry regulation.
"There's these really strong sort of associations in popular culture, there's hypnosis that's used in entertainment, in big performances, in TV shows, in clubs or RSLs and things like that, and that stuff is pretty different to what we're talking about in the research context," said Polito.
"People dancing around and clucking like chickens, those sort of things don't really match with what we find people will or won't do in the lab."
McAuley adds that these perceptions have always been a struggle for clinical hypnosis.

"It feels like hypnotism is an entertainment tool or it's mind control. In our trial, participants were resistant in the beginning because they thought it was somebody trying to control their mind."

In Australia, hypnosis is also an unregulated industry with no legal governing bodies. This lack of regulation makes it difficult to assess where practitioners have been trained because there are no laws related to adopting the title of "hypnotherapist".


Polito believes this is largely due to difficulty in defining what hypnosis is.
"Essentially, to take a very broad kind of approach to it, hypnosis is just a particular kind of social interaction – it's a conversation between two people in which one person suggests things to another person and the other person may or may not respond.
"It's not that different in many ways to a guided relaxation or something like that, so these boundaries get pretty fuzzy."
McAuley believes that the most important component in regulating the hypnotism market would be transparency for consumers.
"What I would like to know if I went to see somebody is what training they've had. Whether there's a regulatory body that oversees that [is not of concern] but I'd like to at least know where they were trained and what sort of training they've had."
Polito's greatest concern with Australia's lack of hypnosis regulation is that this may undermine the benefits of the practice that science is uncovering.
"It's concerning as a scientist studying hypnosis thinking 'This is an important and interesting phenomenon'. The kind of negative associations around hypnosis make it harder to have this work taken more seriously."

Πέμπτη, 27 Σεπτεμβρίου 2018

Types of Hypnotherapy



If you’re thinking about becoming a hypnotherapist (or even engaging in hypnotherapy yourself), before you decide which hypnotherapy training company/hypnotherapist you are going to choose, it’s worth knowing that hypnotherapy isn’t just hypnotherapy… It’s not ‘standardised’ and there are many different types of hypnotherapy that a therapist might use. This blog will give you a brief introduction to some of the most popular types of hypnotherapy out there, which should help you to make your decision moving forwards…

Solution-focused hypnotherapy
The majority of hypnotherapists are trained to be ‘solution-focused’. Whether a hypnotherapist labels him/herself as a solution-focused hypnotherapist is up to them, because you don’t need to use the label in order to use the approach (as is the case with many of these branches of hypnotherapy). Solution-focused simply means that the hypnotherapist works with the client in order to create and work towards a solution, rather than focusing simply on ‘getting rid of the problem’… It’s generally much more effective to work ‘towards something’ (a goal), as opposed to ‘away from something’ (a problem).


Behavioural hypnotherapy
Behavioural hypnotherapy is often a hypnotherapist’s initial ‘go-to’ when working with clients. The idea is that the hypnotherapist helps the client to modify their current (or future) behaviours and habits. The hypnotherapist will work collaboratively with the client during the intake/case history process (before the hypnotherapy begins) to agree on appropriate changes. They then use hypnotherapy techniques and hypnotic suggestions to support and embed these behavioural changes. Using hypnotherapy to support behavioural changes enables clients to better ‘stick to it’ and carry on the changes after the session is over. This is often one of the ‘least intrusive’ types of hypnotherapy, hence why it’s usually the first approach used by professional hypnotherapists.

Cognitive hypnotherapy
Cognitive hypnotherapy techniques focus less on behaviours/habits and more on the thoughts and beliefs relating to those behaviours. Sometimes the mind can ‘get stuck’ in unhelpful ways of thinking (that may once have served a positive purpose). Cognitive hypnotherapy can help clients to ‘update’ their beliefs on a ‘subconscious level’, meaning that they begin to think about things differently. Cognitive techniques can draw from a range of different therapies and theories, such as cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), rational emotive behaviour therapy (REBT), acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) and even mindfulness approaches. The therapist, as with all other branches of hypnotherapy, will choose the right approach to meet the client’s personal requirements, goals and values.

Analytical hypnotherapy (or hypno-analysis)
Using ideas and approaches from the analytical school of psychotherapy, analytical hypnotherapy is used to identify ‘why’ a client has a problem, or why they’re doing what they’re doing. Many analytical hypnotherapists work to find ‘root causes’, with a view to helping the client respond to said causes differently. Analytical therapists also help clients to find ‘insight’ within themselves, because sometimes we have ‘the answers’ within us, yet we may not be aware of them.



Ericksonian hypnotherapy
Named after Milton H. Erickson, an American psychiatrist and hypnotist (and a key figure of modern hypnotherapy), Ericksonian hypnotherapy uses ‘indirect suggestions’, storytelling/metaphors and more ‘off the wall’ approaches in order to create changes in clients, whether on a behavioural, cognitive or even analytical level. Ericksonian hypnotherapy (when performed properly) can be highly effective, however there are some hypnotherapists that label their approaches as ‘Ericksonian’ when in fact they are not. True Ericksonian hypnotherapy is highly adapted to each individual client and tends to rely on the therapist’s innate ability to judge what type of intervention a client needs. Whether a story relating to their problem, a challenging homework task to break a habit, an abrupt and confrontational conversation or even simple, indirect suggestions relating to their goal… Fundamentally, Ericksonian hypnotherapy can be thought of as a combination of many different therapeutic approaches, but in it’s simplest form (the form that is most often taught by modern hypnotherapy schools), it refers more to metaphors and indirect suggestions (which can be a very useful tool in creating change with clients).

Regression hypnotherapy (or regression to cause)
Regression (or ‘regression to cause’) refers to taking a client back in their mind to past events that may have some bearing on their problem. It’s worth noting that regression doesn’t have to be used to access negativeevents/memories, regression can also be used to access past resource states and positive memories too. In terms of therapy, regression is often one of the last approaches a professional hypnotherapist will use (or should be), because most of the time a behavioural, cognitive or analytical approach will be much easier on the client (psychologically). When a hypnotherapist works through the above-mentioned approaches first, they’ll usually find a more appropriate/effective solution for the client, without needing to ‘go back’ and search for a potential cause (which could potentially re-traumatise the client).
Occasionally a well-trained hypnotherapist might use regression as a first approach, but usually this will only be for phobias/fears. The reason hypnotherapists might use regressions for phobias as a first approach is because it’s highly likely that the phobia relates to a past event (often from childhood). Working with said event will often be the key to removing the phobia (though some hypnotherapists use non-regression approaches to work with phobias too). Please avoid any training/therapists that recommend regression as a first/only approach, regardless of the issue, as generally this is a very limited way of working. Many therapists who’re only trained in regression and nothing else are not as skilled at dealing with the potential issues that may arise in the therapy process.

Past-life regression hypnotherapy
Some clients believe in past lives and that those lives have a bearing on their current issue. Upon experiencing ‘past life memories’ some clients gain insight into their own problems and why they’re happening. Sometimes the goal of past life therapy is to ‘cut the ties’, removing connection to unhelpful past lives. As a therapist, believing in past lives is not a prerequisite for performing past life regressions, however having respect for the client’s own beliefs is important (as is the case, no matter what type of hypnotherapy you are doing). Some therapists and clients believe in past lives, others believe that the past life is a metaphor for change. Either way, it works for some people. The techniques used in past-life regression are very similar to those used in normal (current life) regression.


Clinical hypnotherapy
Unfortunately, most of the time so-called ‘clinical hypnotherapists’ are pretty much just regularly trained hypnotherapists. There are many courses out there offering ‘clinical hypnotherapy training’ but it actually isn’t. Why isn’t it? Well, because by definition clinical hypnotherapy means hypnotherapy that is performed in a clinical environment or in the treatment of medical conditions. Conditions such as pain, skin problems, obstetrics (childbirth), psycho-sexual disorders and particularly those problems where other healthcare providers are involved in the overall care and management of the client’s health. So, though ‘clinical hypnotherapy’ sounds impressive, take it with a pinch of salt. If you’re looking for a clinical hypnotherapist or real clinical hypnotherapy training, there are not many options out there. However, one of our hypnotherapy trainers, Dr Kate Beaven-Marks truly is a clinical hypnotherapist (she uses hypnosis on the wards of hospitals in London) and she could definitely give you further advice on clinical hypnotherapy (feel free to contact her for more details).

Hypno-psychotherapy
Hypno-psychotherapy is, you’ve probably guessed it, the integration of both hypnotherapy and psychotherapy (such as gestalt, humanistic, psychodynamic, etc.). Hypnotherapists offering this type of approach will have training in both hypnotherapy and psychotherapy. Be aware that some hypnotherapy trainers offer courses that cover both and some psychologists only get basic hypnosis training, in both scenarios this can sometimes mean that their overall training is not quite as good as if a therapist were to get a full hypnotherapy qualification as well as a standalone psychology qualification too. This is because courses that cover more than one discipline can often be overly focused on one of them, rather than teaching all aspects of both to a high level.

Hypno-counselling
Similar to hypno-psychotherapy, hypno-counselling is the use of counselling techniques alongside hypnotherapy. Same again, it’s often a much better idea to get two separate qualifications rather than trying to ‘cut down on time and costs’ by taking a ‘merged’ hypnotherapy/counselling course.

Other therapies/techniques
There are many other therapies and techniques out there that are utilised by hypnotherapists. Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) is a common one employed by hypnotherapists. Formulated by studying/modelling excellent communicators and therapists, NLP lends a great many tools to the hypnotherapists toolbox, such as the fast phobia cure, timeline therapy, 6 step reframe, etc. Many NLP techniques can be made more effective when used in hypnosis, this is why many NLP courses include a bit of hypnosis training. However, again, as it’s an addition (often included almost as an after thought), generally ‘NLPers’ don’t learn enough about hypnosis to do it as effectively as if they’d engaged in a full hypnotherapy course alongside their NLP training.


As well as all of the above types of hypnotherapy, there are also many ‘standalone’ hypnotherapy techniques that hypnotherapists sometimes use alongside their standard approach, such as ‘The Swan’, ‘The Arrow’, ‘Kinetic Shift’, ‘Old Pain 2 Go’, etc. These techniques are not ‘types of hypnotherapy’ in and of themselves, however they are often used alongside other hypnotherapy approaches/types. That said, some hypnotherapists only ever learn one or two standalone techniques, without actually taking a full hypnotherapy course! Without having the underpinning knowledge that full training gives, this often means that these therapists might not be working as safely or effectively with clients as they could be if they’d engaged in full training (if you want to learn more about training vs. techniques, we have another blog about exactly that).

hypnotc.com
#Quantumnaut

Σάββατο, 16 Δεκεμβρίου 2017

5 Ways To Deal With Recurring Thoughts


Whether it’s something that happened in the past or something that could happen in the future - wishing the thoughts away only increases our resistance to them and attracts more resistance into other areas of our lives. Here are some ways to practically deal with recurring thoughts:
1. Mindfulness - get into the now. When recurring thoughts arise we can acknowledge that we’re following them and then make the conscious decision to tune into the now. The recurring thoughts are keeping us trapped in the mind - to ground ourselves in the now we need to lose the mind and come to the senses.
2. Subconscious detoxing - filling the mind with peaceful imagery. Often times our recurring thoughts can be triggered or perpetuated by what we choose to feed our subconscious mind. To greatly reduce the frequency of these thoughts we can immerse ourselves in nature and take a break from social media, television & music.
3. Exercise - working out our emotions. Recurring thoughts can be an indication that there are some emotions within us that have not been expressed. One way to express these emotions is to move into the body which relieves much of the mental tension that can be brought on by these thoughts.
4. Creativity - expressing our true feelings.Another way to express repressed emotions or thoughts is through being creative. Painting, drawing, singing, dancing or cooking - creative outlets greatly reduce stress and are a great way to deal with recurring thoughts.
5. Meditation - observing the thoughts that dominate the mind. When we make time to be present with ourselves we can observe the thoughts that are dominating the mind. Rather than feeling helpless to these recurring thoughts we can adjust our actions to create positive thoughts that serve us.

Positive actions create positive thoughts - do what you love.

Peace & positive vibes.

#Quantumnaut

Δευτέρα, 11 Δεκεμβρίου 2017

Απαντήστε σε 2 απίστευτες ερωτήσεις



Ερωτήσεις κρίσεως:


Ερώτηση 1 : Αν ήξερες μια γυναίκα που ήταν έγκυος, η οποία είχε ήδη 8 παιδιά, τρία από τα οποία ήταν κουφά, δύο τυφλά, ένα με διανοητική καθυστέρηση, και είχε και σύφιλη, θα της συστήνατε να κάνει άμβλωση;




Διαβάστε και την επόμενη ερώτηση πριν απαντήσετε.


Ερώτηση 2 : Είναι χρόνος να εκλεχτεί ένας νέος παγκόσμιος ηγέτης, και μόνο η ψήφος σας μετράει. Tα γεγονότα για τους τρεις κορυφαίους υποψηφίους είναι τα ακόλουθα.


Ο υποψήφιος Α συναναστρέφεται με διεφθαρμένους πολιτικούς. Συμβουλεύεται αστρολόγους. Απατά τη γυναίκα του. Πίνει 8 με 10 martinis ημερησίως και καπνίζει μανιωδώς πούρα.


Ο υποψήφιος Β απολύθηκε από τη δουλειά του δύο φορές, κοιμάται μέχρι το μεσημέρι, έκανε χρήση ναρκωτικών στο Πανεπιστήμιο και πίνει ένα τέταρτο γαλονιού ουίσκι κάθε βράδυ.


Ο υποψήφιος Γ είναι παρασημοφορημένος ήρωας πολέμου. Χορτοφάγος, δεν καπνίζει, πίνει μια μπύρα που και που και δεν έχει ποτέ απατήσει τη σύζυγό του.


Σε ποιον από τους τρεις θα ρίχνατε την ψήφο σας; Αποφασίσατε;



Ο υποψήφιος Α είναι o Franklin D. Roosevelt.


Ο υποψήφιος Β είναι ο Winston Churchill.


Ο υποψήφιος Γ είναι ο Adolph Hitler.


Και επ' ευκαιρία η απάντηση στην ερώτηση της άμβλωσης:


Εάν είπατε ναι, μόλις σκοτώσατε τον Beethoven. Αρκετά ενδιαφέρον έτσι;



Θυμηθείτε : Οι ερασιτέχνες έχτισαν την κιβωτό. Οι επαγγελματίες έχτισαν τον Τιτανικό.

arcadiaportal.gr

#Quantumnaut

Πέμπτη, 2 Νοεμβρίου 2017

Is anxiety stopping you enjoying your life?



It’s normal to feel a level of nerves or to get a little anxious at times, maybe when preparing for a special event or exam or when entering into unfamiliar situations, such as a new job. Sometimes a certain amount of stress is needed for you to perform well and do your best.
However, if anxious feelings grow to an excessive level and are not dealt with, they can become a problem. If you’re suffering from anxiety, you know how debilitating it can be. Anxious feelings can stop you from enjoying your life, limit you in your career, stop you sleeping and relaxing and can even cause actual physical symptoms resulting in illness, if they are allowed to get out of hand.
Anxiety can show up in our lives in different ways and forms but is often characterised by feelings of fear and worry about current or future situations, although often these feelings can be triggered by memories of a past event.  Anxiety can cause the following symptoms;
Panic, fear, and uneasiness
Sleep problems
Not being able to stay calm and still
Cold, sweaty, numb or tingling hands or feet
Shortness of breath
Heart palpitations
Dry mouth
Nausea
Tense muscles
Dizziness

What causes anxiety?
Causes of anxiety can vary- from external factors such as worry about work, study or money, stressful relationships or a traumatic event in our past. Internally, causes can be possible side effects from medication or hormonal changes, during PMT (pre-menstrual tension) or the menopause for example. According to most sources there are five main types of anxiety disorders;
GAD- Generalised anxiety disorder
This is characterised by chronic anxiety and intense worry even when there is little or nothing to trigger it.
Social anxiety/phobia
This type of anxiety disorder can develop into an intense irrational fear and self-conscious feelings in public during everyday life. Or, often it can be connected to occasional or specific types of social occasions, such as public speaking or when meeting new people. Social anxiety can result in debilitating and intense shyness when socialising in large groups of people or even when faced with a one to one meeting with someone.
In severe cases of social anxiety these uncomfortable feelings can arise almost anytime the person is around others.
PTSD- Post traumatic stress disorder
This disorder can develop following a distressing or frightening experience, or after a situation whereby the person has been physically hurt or threatened. After a traumatic event people are often overwhelmed by the experience. "Normal" reactions such as fear, anger or sadness turn into panic, exhaustion and desperation. PTSD can set in, normally as a delayed reaction, days or even months after the traumatic experience.
OCD- Obsessive compulsive disorder
This is characterised by repetitive and recurring unwanted thoughts or ‘obsessions’ resulting in the person taking actions such as excessive hand washing, cleaning or constantly checking details. These rituals or compulsive actions are repeated often to try to make the unwanted thoughts stop. However, normally the repetitive behaviours only act as a temporary relief. Sufferers of OCD often think that if they don’t follow their ‘rituals’ something bad or unwanted may happen.
Panic attack disorder
A person suffering from a panic attack can experience unexpected intense feelings of fear accompanied by physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, dizziness, breathlessness, chest pain or tummy ache. These attacks are extremely distressing as they can happen when least expected and also can cause feelings of embarrassment and shame, especially if the attack happened in a public place.
How can we deal with anxiety?
 There are some simple everyday things you can do minimise these feelings. Here are 10 ideas;
  • ·Exercise- the benefits of physical exercise on our mental state is now well documented, lifting depression and helping us to deal with stress (both of which can make anxiety worse).
  • ·Eat a balanced diet and eat regularly. This will keep your mood more balanced and stop cravings, which can result in anxious feelings.
  • ·Get enough sleep. Try to relax in the evening allowing you to sleep easily when you get to bed. Take a nice hot bath, drink some camomile tea and go to bed early.
  • ·Avoid too much caffeine (a stimulant) and cut down on alcohol, which is a known depressant.
  • ·Ensure you’re breathing properly. Become aware of your breathing and use deep breaths as an aid to produce calm feelings and reduce stress.
  • ·Meditation; find time to meditate. There are many forms of meditation from guided visualizations to Transcendental Meditation and mindfulness. Find a technique that you can work into your life and practice.
  • ·Do something you enjoy doing regularly. Whether it’s watching a movie, reading a book or catching up with friends and connecting. Make time for your leisure time as well as work or study.
  • ·Ask yourself some questions when anxiety rears its head. Ask yourself “If the worst happened how would I deal with it?” (the answer to this may make you feel calmer as you are coming up with creative solutions  and will become  more proactive and less reactive). Ask “How do I want to feel instead?”. This helps you to gain a new perspective about other possible ways to feel about the situation- it shifts the mindset. You can also ask “Is this my problem or is it someone else’s responsibility?” Often we stress over other people’s business and because it is someone else’s problem, they are responsible for solving it- not you! When this sinks in, you may find you can detach and feel calmer about the situation.
  • ·Scribble down all of your worries into a journal. Journaling is such a cathartic tool. By getting down all of your negative thoughts and feelings on paper you ‘process’ them rather than squashing them down inside of yourself. By doing this regularly your worries and fears will dissipate and have much less of a hold on you.
  • ·Seek some help. CBT, hypnotherapy and stress relief/management techniques can really help people deal with anxiety when it gets out of control.
Written by: Becca Teers. DIP CBH MNCH (Reg) CNHC (Reg) GHR
hypnotherapy-directory.org.uk
#Quantumnaut
Για περισσότερες πληροφορίες: 
Nikos Stefanos Gevgelis 
''Master Hypnotist''
 

Member in National Guild of Hypnotists, Inc.
Contact:
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